• Kirovsky Zavod and ŠKODA TRANSPORTATION Launch Joint Venture

    The Russian-Czech joint venture will manufacture metro cars, trams and electric trains. The sales revenues are projected to reach $130 million by the end of 2015.

  • Equipment supply for Slovak NPPs

    Kirov-Energomash (a subsidiary of the Kirov Group) has dispatched component parts for reactor units of two nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic.

  • Kirov Group Will Supply Equipment for World's Largest Diesel-Electric Icebreaker

    Kirov-Energomash, a subsidiary of the Kirov Group, will manufacture an anti-icing turbocompressor worth $3.2 million for the next-generation multifunctional icebreaker.

Main > About the company > HISTORICAL NOTE

HISTORICAL NOTE

Kirovsky Zavod (Putilovsky Zavod from 1868 to 1922; Krasny Putilovets from 1922 to 1934) was founded in April 1801 as an iron foundry producing artillery ammunition. In 1812 the factory began developing its machine-building component, and started manufacturing steam engines. At the same time the plant began working on artistic casting, helping create architectural complexes and monuments in St. Petersburg and its suburbs.


In November 1824 the St. Petersburg foundry was practically destroyed by a flood, and struggled to survive for the next forty years.


In 1868 the plant was acquired by the famous Russian engineer and entrepreneur N.I. Putilov (1820-1880) who, in the space of 12 years, managed to turn the old metallurgical plant into a multi-profile machine-building plant. Very quickly the plant became a major supplier of rails to the Russian railway sector, mastered high-quality steel smelting, and the production of ammunition, train cars, guns, gun turrets for battleships, tools, large-sized steel structures and other industrial products, many of which were made using the plant's own technology. At the same time, the plant worked on developing its social infrastructure, opening a hospital, a cafeteria, a library, a park and a theater, and creating an effective system of vocational training. During N.I. Putilov's tenure the plant diversified its production, and laid the foundation of its own brand - professional skills and the creation of unique and innovative technologies.
Since then, many generations of Putilovsky (Kirovsky) Zavod employees have created thousands of groundbreaking of vehicle and industrial equipment models that were well ahead of their time. Many of these products opened up new directions of technological development. For instance, Kirovsky Zavod was one of the pioneers (in 1913) in developing Russian turbine-building and tractor-building (since 1924). To this day Kirovsky Zavod is the Russian flagship producer of high-power tractors. The plant organized the world's first full-scale production of heavy tanks (in 1939) and created the T-80, the world's first tank with a gas turbine engine (1976). This tradition continues in all Kirovsky Zavod activities today.


The Putilovsky Zavod Joint-Stock Company, founded in 1873 by N.I. Putilov, proved its worth over the next four decades. Before World War I the plant became a center of Russian mechanical engineering and was a leading producer in Russia and Europe of locomotives, artillery ammunition, ships and turbines.


Putilovsky Zavod employees were in the vanguard of the working class movement in the country. They played an important role in the revolutionary struggle and the events of 1905-1907 and 1917. Over 10,000 Putilovsky Zavod employees fought in the Civil War, forming 25 armed military units - squads, regiments, battalions and divisions. During the period of collectivization, thousands of factory workers relocated to rural areas to set up collective farms.


In the harsh economic conditions of the 1920s, the plant manufactured equipment for the Volkhov hydroelectric station, and began production of Fordson-Putilovets tractors (before the Second World War the factory produced some 200,000 tractors). Later the plant mastered production of large steam turbines, cranes, tunnel boring machines for subway construction, lifting equipment for dams and the canal locks of the Moscow-Volga canal, engines for combine harvesters, the T-28 medium tank and other military and civilian products.


In the fall of 1941 a large part of the plant's equipment and about 15,000 workers with their families were evacuated to the Urals, where the Chelyabinsk Branch of Kirovsky Zavod (known as Tankograd) started mass production of Tanks of Victory - the KV and IS heavy tank ranges, along with and self-propelled artillery mounts. In the period from late 1939 to May 1945, Soviet troops received more than 19,000 various types of heavy tanks and self-propelled artillery mounts made at Kirovsky Zavod (about 20% of the total number of armored vehicles produced by the country).


The Leningrad Blockade occupies a special place in the operational and war-time history of Kirovsky Zavod. In besieged Leningrad, which was just 4 km away from the frontline, the plant was one of the main targets for enemy shelling and bombing. Based on incomplete data, a total of 4,700 shells and 770 bombs fell on the territory of the plant. 2,500 factory workers died of starvation and nearly 150 were killed as a result of shelling and bombing. Despite this, production for the front never stopped, not even for a day. A Leningrad Civil Defense Unit was started up at Kirovsky Zavod: with plant workers forming the 1st Infantry Regiment of the 1st Kirovsky Civil Defense Division. A total of some 1,000 Kirovsky Zavod employees fought at the front.


In the postwar years Kirovsky Zavod focused on mass production of military equipment, Kirovets tractors (since 1962), and electrical and nuclear power equipment. Over the years the plant produced some 470,000 tractors, with 12,000 units exported to 14 countries. About 40,000 various Kirovets tractor models are out there in the fields all across the world today. Geared turbines made at Kirovsky Zavod are used in energy equipment installed on more than 80% of nuclear submarines of all generations, on board every one of the world's nine nuclear icebreakers and on many naval vessels and large merchant ships. Equipment produced at the plant operates at 50% of units at all Russian and 13 foreign nuclear power plants, including 100% of modern WWR-440 reactors.


In 1992 Kirovsky Zavod was one of the first Russian state enterprises to be transformed into a joint-stock company. In the severe socio-economic conditions of the perestroika years the plant converted its defense industry unit and restructured its financial and economic activities, which played a fundamental role in its transition to a market economy. Production was refocused on the manufacture of new competitive technologies, in demand on the market.


Based on the special K-702 and K-703 industrial tractors, the plant started producing the first ever line of Russian-made road-building equipment and special machinery for road construction and the oil and gas industry. The plant also produces Onega and Ladoga armored vehicles, Maral harvesters, Tundra fast trench-diggers, wheel-tracked chassis, self-propelled crawler cranes, etc. In 2000 the plant started producing the K-744R range, which is currently the plant's main serially produced agricultural tractor. Along with the legendary 700 range, these tractors now form the basis of the heavy tractor park at most Russian agricultural enterprises, carrying out up to 40% of main farming operations, and providing year-round solutions for many transport problems in rural areas.

 


Kirovsky Zavod has always been famous for its significant scientific and technical potential: over the years the plant has employed many world renowned scientists and engineers, like I.M. Salzman (1905-1988) - Company Director in 1938-1945, Z.Y. Kotin (1908-1979) - Head of the Design Bureau and Chief Designer of Kirovsky Zavod in Leningrad and Chelyabinsk (1937-1968), M.A. Kazak (1908-1998) - chief designer of marine steam-turbine units, N.S. Popov (1931-2008) - Kirovsky Zavod Chief Designer (1968-1991). These and many other fine people earned Kirovsky Zavod its reputation as a flagship of Russian industry.

 

 


Kirovsky Zavod's achievements in times of peace and war have been recognized by the state. The plant has earned a total of 7 awards: the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1926), two Orders of Lenin (1939 and 1951), the Order of the Red Banner (1940), the Order of the October Revolution (1970), the Order of Friendship (1976) and the Order of the Patriotic War 1st Class (1985). Kirovsky Zavod in Chelyabinsk, where Kirovsky Zavod was evacuated in 1941, was awarded the Order of the Red Star and the Order of Kutuzov 1st Class for the plant's contribution to strategic victories on the front. Twenty-one Kirovsky Zavod employees were awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, 150 won the State Prize, and many hundreds were awarded other medals and orders.

198097, Russia, St. Petersburg, Stachek pr., 47

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